• HesinRaca
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15 Apr 2007 20:31 #824 by HesinRaca
Aikido was created by HesinRaca
I guess we'll start a thread for Aikido discussion. This is not a debate about the validity of Aikido in any context but merely a place for people to discuss aikido and post ideas and sources. If you think another martial art is better, start a thread for it.
On the otherhand, if you feel another art can play a direct productive union with aikido(such as the use of pressure points) then definitly feel free to drop it in.

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15 Apr 2007 20:32 #825 by HesinRaca
Replied by HesinRaca on topic Aikido

Excellent source for all sorts of things, such as technique photos and description and communities.

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15 Apr 2007 20:42 #828 by Twsoundsoff
Replied by Twsoundsoff on topic Aikido
funnily enough I there are a great many instructional videos on this and the use of pressure points on both google video and youtube.

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15 Apr 2007 20:52 #829 by DAN
Replied by DAN on topic Aikido
i think for this thread a brief description on what aikido is would be good. i think since you started this thread you should do it, so there is no misconseption on this matter. i will say this much this is one of the perfect styles for jediism. strictly defence you cant go wrong there.

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15 Apr 2007 20:56 #831 by Twsoundsoff
Replied by Twsoundsoff on topic Aikido
I agree and you certainly can't

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08 May 2007 12:38 #1881 by thud thorax
Replied by thud thorax on topic Aikido
Is an art which is strictly for defence able to provide the initiative to the victim, rather than the attacker? It seems the action must be initiated for the defensive reaction to take place.Just curious, i ask with respect.


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08 May 2007 15:03 #1890 by Merin Kyo Den
Replied by Merin Kyo Den on topic Aikido
DAN wrote:

............ strictly defence you cant go wrong there.

Watch that one.! The modern definition of defense and the one from even 100 yrs ago is different. The root arts at the heart of Aikido are not defensive in the modern sense.

\"It’s in modern times that we have a concept of Martial Arts and self defense as there to defend oneself and not to be used to hurt your adversary but rather to “Block and defend” I tell you now that this is not the definition of self defense used by our ancestors. The Art of defense is the art of bringing violence to another person before they can complete their act of violence against you., this is the reality of any war like art. The concept of blocking and pushing away is not correct because as long as your on the “defensive” you WILL be hit. The teachings of both eastern and western masters show us how to regain the initiative and take control of the situation. Weather by redirection or attack you are now in control of the fight and the fight is no longer in control of you, this is the purpose of the arts of mars\"

Even Aikido is about gaining the advantage by using your opponents energy against them, it's not defensive in it's practical application as people would believe. When done correctly the redirecting of energy can have detrimental effects on the attacker. This is why an armed conflict is to be a last resort.

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08 May 2007 15:10 #1892 by Merin Kyo Den
Replied by Merin Kyo Den on topic Aikido
From Wikipedia.......................

Aikido (合気道, aikidō?), translated as \"the way of harmonious spirit\", is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create a martial art through which a practitioner could achieve the ability to defend himself without injuring his attacker.
Aikido emphasizes joining with an attack and redirecting the attacker's energy, as opposed to meeting force with force, and consists primarily of body throws and joint-locking techniques. In addition to physical fitness and techniques, mental training, controlled relaxation, and development of \"spirit\" (ki) are emphasized in aikido training.

Spirit of aikido
The word aikido is formed of three Japanese characters,
合 - ai - joining
気 - ki - spirit
道 - dō - way
Aiki is a martial arts principle or tactic. It typically describes an idea of oneness or joining together in the midst of combat. This principle finds expressions in such lethal concepts as the \"mutual strike/kill\" (相撃ち, ai-uchi?), but in aikido it generally describes the elevated notion of moving together rather than clashing. Emphasis is upon unifying with the rhythm and intent of the opponent in order to find the optimal position and timing with which to apply the technique.[1]
The techniques of aikido can, when applied judiciously, divert or immobilize rather than damage or kill. As a result, some consider aikido to be a practical symbol of meeting aggression (physical, verbal, etc.) with an effective but merciful response, and finding harmony in conflict. Ueshiba declared, \"To control aggression without inflicting injury is the Art of Peace.\"[2]

History Aikido, as envisioned by its founder, is not only the synthesis of the founder's martial training, but also the expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. Today, aikido continues its evolution from the koryū (old-style martial arts), to a wide variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world.[3]
Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, 14 December 1883 – 26 April 1969), also known by aikido practitioners as Ōsensei (\"Great Teacher\").[4] Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied.[5] The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sokaku (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku, 1859–1943), the revivor of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō (戸沢 徳三郎, 1848–1912) in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyu Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu (中井 正勝, fl. 1891–1908) in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi (高木 喜代子 Takagi Kiyoichi, 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911.[6]
The art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (jō), and perhaps also the bayonet (jūken). However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship (kenjutsu).[1]
Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915. His official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937.[5] However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time, Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as \"Aiki Budō\". It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name \"aikido\", but it officially became the name of the art in 1942, when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society (Dai Nippon Butoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts.[3]

Onisaburo Deguchi
After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi (出口 王仁三郎 Deguchi Ōnisaburo, 1871–1948), the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe.[7] Significantly, one of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life. This is the primary influence upon Ueshiba's martial philosophy of love and compassion, especially for those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis upon mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker.[8]
In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi was to have a major effect in introducing Ueshiba to various elite political and military circles as a martial artist. As a result of this exposure he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students in their own right. Several of these students went on to found their own styles of aikido (see infra, Styles).[9]
Aikido was first brought to the West in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki (望月 稔 Mōchizuki Minoru, 1907–2003) with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students.[10] He was followed by Tadashi Abe (阿部 正 Abe Tadashi, 1926–1984) in 1952 who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years. Kenji Tomiki (富木 謙治 Tomiki Kenji, 1900–1979) toured with a delegation of various martial arts through fifteen continental states of the United States in 1953.[9] Subsequently in that year, Koichi Tohei (藤平 光一 Tōhei Kōichi, born 1920) was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii, for a full year, where he set up several dojo. This was backed up by several further visits and is thus considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States. The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964; Germany and Australia in 1965. Today there are aikido dojo available to train throughout the world.

Physical training
In aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training, which are often interdependent and interrelated. The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques.[11] Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing most students learn is how to safely fall or roll.[12] The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and pins. After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and in certain styles, techniques with weapons.

General fitness and training
Disarming an attacker using a \"sword taking\" (tachi-dori) technique.
Physical training goals pursued in conjunction with aikido include controlled relaxation, flexibility, and endurance, with less emphasis on weightlifting-style strength. In aikido technique, pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements found in other arts, and this distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner.
Certain anaerobic fitness activities, such as weight-lifting, emphasize contractionary power, in which specific muscles or muscle groups are isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. Aikido-related training instead emphasizes the use of coordinated whole-body movement and balance, more similar to yoga or pilates. For example, many dojo begin each class with warm-up exercises (準備体操, junbi taisō?), which may include stretching and breakfalls.[13]
Aikido training is based primarily on pre-arranged forms (kata), practiced by two persons together rather than freestyle practice (randori). The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the executor of the throw or pin (nage, also referred to as tori or shite depending on aikido style), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique.
Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to aikido training. Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation, applied from different sides of the technique. Nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This \"receiving\" of the technique is called ukemi.[14] Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e.g. an exposed side), while nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques (kaeshi-waza) to regain balance and pin or throw nage.
Ukemi (受身, Ukemi?), literally meaning \"receiving-body\", is the term used in aikido for protective techniques, such as parries or safe falls. One of the first skills taught to students beginning aikido is how to land when thrown so as to avoid injury.[14] Familiarity with different types of breakfalls allows sincere execution of techniques that could otherwise be prohibitively dangerous. In applying a technique, it is the responsibility of nage to prevent injury to uke by employing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their partner's proficiency in ukemi.[14] Injuries (especially those to the joints), when they do occur in aikido, are often the result of nage misjudging the ability of uke to receive the throw or pin.[15][16]

[edit] Techniques
Students learn the various attacks from which an aikido technique can be practiced. Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, honest attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) are needed to study correct and effective application of technique.[1]
Many of the strikes (打ち, uchi?) of aikido are often said to resemble blows from a sword or other grasped object, which may suggest origins in techniques intended for armed combat.[1] Other techniques which appear to explicitly be punches (tsuki), are also practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword. Kicks are generally reserved for upper-level variations; reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous, and that kicks (high kicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan. Some basic strikes include:
Shōmen'uchi (front-face-strike) a vertical knife-hand strike to the head.
Yokomen'uchi (side-face-strike) a diagonal knife-hand strike to the side of the head or neck.
Mune-tsuki (or chūdan-tsuki) (chest-thrust) a punch to the torso. Specific targets include the chest, abdomen, and solar plexus.
Ganmen-tsuki (or jōdan-tsuki) (face-thrust) a punch to the face.
Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the grabbing person. The following are examples of some basic grabs:
Katate-dori (single-hand-grab) one hand grabs one wrist.
Morote-dori (both-hands-grab) both hands grab one wrist.
Ryōte-dori (both-hands-grab) both hands grab both wrists. (sometimes called ryōkatate-dori)
Kata-dori (shoulder-grab) a shoulder grab. (both-shoulders-grab is ryōkata-dori)
Mune-dori (chest-grab) grabbing the (clothing of the) chest.

Diagram of ikkyō, or \"first technique\". Yonkyō has a similar mechanism of action, although the upper hand grips the forearm rather than the elbow.
The following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins. The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation. Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order.
Ikkyō (first technique) a control using one hand on the elbow and one on near the wrist which leverages uke to the ground. This grip also applies pressure into the ulnar nerve on the medial side of the arm.
Nikyō (second technique) an adductive wristlock that torques the arm and applies painful nerve pressure.
Sankyō (third technique) a pronating technique that directs upward-spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder.
Yonkyō (fourth technique) a shoulder control similar to ikkyō, but with both hands gripping the forearm. The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to the recipient's radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone.
Gokyō (fifth technique) a variant of ikkyō in which the hand gripping the wrist is inverted. Common in tantō and other weapon take-aways.
Shihōnage (four-direction throw) The hand is folded back past the shoulder, locking the shoulder joint.
Kotegaeshi (wrist return) a supinating wristlock-throw that stretches the extensor digitorum.
Kokyūnage (breath throw) a term for various types of flowing \"timing throws\".
Iriminage (entering-body throw) throws in which nage moves through the space occupied by uke. The classic form superficially resembles a \"clothesline\" technique.
Tenchinage (heaven-and-earth throw) From uke grabbing both wrists of nage. Moving forward, nage sweeps one hand low (\"earth\") and the other high (\"heaven\"), which unbalances uke so that he or she easily topples over.
Koshinage (hip throw) aikido's version of the hip throw. Nage drops his or her hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum.
Jūjinage (shaped-like-'ten' throw) a throw that locks the arms against each other. (The kanji for \"10\" is a cross-shape.)
Kaitennage (rotation throw) nage sweeps the arm back until it locks the shoulder joint, then uses forward pressure to throw.
Weapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (jō), wooden katana (bokken), and knife (tantō). Today, some schools also incorporate firearms-disarming techniques. Bokken and jō skills in particular are generally practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jō, respectively. Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate armed and unarmed aspects. Some schools of aikido do not train with weapons at all while others, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito (斉藤 守弘 Saitō Morihiro, 1928–2002), usually spend substantial time with bokken, jō, and tantō. The founder developed much of empty handed aikido from traditional sword and staff movements, so practice of these movements gives both insight into the origin of techniques and movements, and vital practice of these basic building blocks.[18]

Aikido makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. For example, an \"entering\" (入身, irimi?) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a \"turning\" (転換, tenkan?) technique uses a pivoting motion.[19] Additionally, an \"inside\" (内, uchi?) technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an \"outside\" (外, soto?) technique takes place to his side; a \"front\" (表, omote?) technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a \"rear\" (裏, ura?) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Seated techniques are called suwari-waza.[20]
Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula \"attack-technique(-modifier)\". For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab.
Atemi are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. Some view atemi as attacks against \"vital points\" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. For instance, Gōzō Shioda (塩田 剛三 Shioda Gōzō, 1915–1994) described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader.[21] Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may also become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw.[20]
Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique.[22]

Technique performed against two attackers.
One feature of aikido is training to defend oneself against multiple attackers. Freestyle (randori, or jiyūwaza) practice with multiple attackers is a key part of most curriculae and is required for the higher level ranks. Randori exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment. Strategic choice of techniques, based upon how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind.
In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend and resist at will. In this respect it resembles judo randori.[23]

Mental training
Aikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations.[24] This is necessary in order to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness.[25] Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one \"must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and stare death in the face\" in order to execute techniques without hesitation.[2] As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but also with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners.[26]


This was the logogram for ki until 1946, when it was changed to 気.
The study of ki is a critical component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either \"physical\" or \"mental\" training, as it encompasses both. The original kanji for ki was 氣 (shown left), and is a symbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice; the \"nourishing vapors\" contained within are ki.[27]
The character \"ki\" is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as \"health\" (元気, genki?), or \"shyness\" (内気, uchiki?). Ki is most often understood as unified physical and mental intention. Gōzō Shioda's Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the 'hard styles', largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, surmises that the secret to ki lay in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point.[21] In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in Aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel, and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective. Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki. Students are even ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development.

Uniforms and ranking
The vast majority of aikido styles use the system of earning coloured belts (段位, dan'i?) common to modern Japanese martial arts. Students generally progress by promotion through a series of \"grades\" (kyū), followed by a series of \"degrees\" (dan), pursuant to formal testing procedures. The majority of aikido organisations use only white and black belts to distinguish between skill levels, but some use a progression of coloured belts for kyū levels. It is important to note that the actual requirements for each rank, the number of levels of rank, and the exact testing procedures vary widely between styles. As such, a particular rank in one organization is not necessarily comparable or interchangeable with the rank of another.[1]
The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidōgi) is similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most other modern martial arts; simple trousers and a wraparound jacket, usually white. Both thick (\"judo-style\"), and thin (\"karate-style\") cotton tops are used. Most aikido systems also add a pair of wide pleated trousers called a hakama, which is a traditional Japanese garment. In aikido, the hakama is usually black or indigo, and the rules governing who is allowed to wear one vary widely. In many styles it is reserved for practitioners with black belt ranks, while others allow all practitioners or female practitioners to wear a hakama regardless of rank.[1]

Styles of aikido
Aikido is practiced in many different and unique styles. A number of these styles were formed by Morihei Ueshiba's major students. The proliferation of independent styles began after the Second World War and accelerated with the death of the founder in 1969. Today, the major styles of aikido are each run by a separate governing organization, have their own headquarters (honbu dōjō) in Japan, and have an international breadth.[9] The biggest aikido organisation is the Aikikai, which contains several technically different aikidos among them the major part of the so called Iwama style. Other prominent aikido organisations or styles are Yoshinkan, Yoseikan, Shodokan or Tomiki aikido, and Ki-aikido.

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08 May 2007 23:21 #1915 by Mouse
Replied by Mouse on topic Aikido
Hello Befor i start I must apoliges for may bad spelling i ame sevear deslack so have a vearey hared time with speling and punkuwachen.

this is may first post. I have studeyed aikido since i was 8 i ame now 28 so 20 years wow it dosent seme that long.
May first class was tarfying i was excited to go untill i got thear. at the time it was in the ymca ywca, wean i wocked in to the rume and sean the techear dresed up in her gi and huckma and than realised that i was the smaillest kid thear. i no longer wonted to be thear and hid behined may mom\"s lages. Mom made me get on the mat i crayed and realey was intimededated. i hated it but mom made me keep gowing. It didnot tack me long to start to love it. after about a month i was hoked fore life it seams.
I went frome the kids beginers class to the adults class. to being the hiest ranking student in may dojo.
I test agen in Montreall Canada on the 19 of may witch is coming up vearey fast yacks.
I have alsow vearey resentley setup may own classis and ame working on seting up may own dojo.
yeas i ame yung to be dowing this i now this i have ben toled this alout it semes everay time i go to test a fouw pepeaill come up to me and tell me that i ame to yung to have the rank i dow but most tell me that i inspyer tham i dont now how i dow that but that is wot theay tell me.
I have grown up literley in aikido it is a mager paret of may life.

throuw the yeares i have hered alout of pepeaill compear aikido to the jedi. alout of aikido pepeaill tack strong afence to being compared to jedi. The latest excampel i have I was atending a workshop. at a dinear somwin metened at the other end of the tabel somthing about star wares somwon alts yealed out at him hay you wont to day he was vearey afended. The gest instructor handeled it vearey well he comed theam down and comvincet theam that moveyes like star wares have brout alout of pepeaill to aikido and yeas it may be a pane in the neck at how maney pepeaill react to you and the silley comanets theay make at you that realey is now bige deaill and that star wars has don more good than harem to aikido.
everay one has thear own opean in this mater. may opean i dont now yeat. aikido has made me like at star wares becos of all the strong reatchons Aikidoka (somewon how studeys aikido) have to it

may couresety has ben peacked I now the aikido side of it vearey well now i wont to see or fined out wot gets so maney aikidoka upset and others to lafe and shake thear heads
I have an open mined
so wot is your side of it ? way dow you think aikido is like the jedi?
is it the phlosafy behined it ?
I ame quite good at tocking about the phlosafe so please i ame wiling to descus it and wont to.

thankyou for lisaning and i hope may speling was not to atroches
The aikido inbasetor hehe ;)

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09 May 2007 14:24 - 29 Jan 2009 21:07 #1927 by Garm
Replied by Garm on topic Aikido
Martial Arts systems all have their good points, I have not practiced aikido to any great extent but the small exposure was positive, as in most systems, it develops not only the body, but the mind through concentration and focus, maybe more so with the extensive use of joint pressure and posture. A thread for aikido as mentioned would be a good idea, as for the other arts if need be.

All martial arts are taught with the ideal of not being used to attack, however all teach aggressive techniques and when to use them, as a practioner I understand and agree with this moral position, but we should not confuse the use of the art to start a situation with illegal and or immoral intent, with using ones talents to end a conflict as in event of attack on innocent or helpless people. Sometimes the only answer to violence is violence. This is an unfortunate truth. In an encounter of this type I am fully prepared and capable of initiating an attack and will use whatever force is required to neutralize the encounter. This may involve surprise, or deceit, both against the code of ‘never for attack’ taught at the dojo, but necessary at the time.
In the event that a weapon may be involved, lethal techniques may need to be immediately applied to ensure the safety of others.

The secret to how “self defensive” an art is lies in the heart of the individual, and I hope that all Martial Artists have the good character to use their training only for the benefit of mankind.

Lenny O.C.P.
Knight of Jediism
Last edit: 29 Jan 2009 21:07 by Garm.

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